Heat dissipation means radiation dissipation, heat dissipation, convection heat dissipation, evaporation heat dissipation. The heat produced by the organs of the body is distributed evenly throughout the body as the blood circulates. When blood flows through the skin's blood vessels, 90% of the total heat is released from the skin, so the skin is the main part of the body's heat dissipation. There is also a small amount of heat, which passes through the lungs, kidneys, and digestive tracts, and is released from the body through respiration, urine and faeces.


    The main process of mitral balloon dilatation, which is carried out by blood vessels on the right thigh, is as follows:


    After entering the catheter, the nurse will give you a sedative. After removing the clothes and laying on the catheter bed, the doctor began to disinfect and lay out the surgical towel (sheet). After sterilizing and laying out the surgical towel (single), the patient's hands are on the head, and the legs are straight; The patient's hand can no longer touch the surgical towel (sheet). Then the doctor is about to start anesthesia. Mitral balloon dilatation, is usually treated with topical anesthesia and puncture blood vessels, the patient likely to feel a certain degree of pain, but not serious, and infusion at ordinary times when the pain is more or less.


    Usually, the doctor first punctures the right femoral vein, then sends a catheter to do the stress and hemodynamic checks. Then the right femoral artery was punctured, and another catheter was sent to the aorta and the left ventricle for pressure measurement and monitoring. After these tests, the doctor will have a room puncture. This is one of the key steps in mitral balloon dilatation. In the case of atrial septal puncture, the patient sometimes has a heartbeat, which is a common condition, which is caused by the catheter to stimulate the heart, and the atrial septal puncture is completed and then disappears. Patients should not suddenly gasp or cough when they are punctured to avoid danger.


    After the atrial septal puncture is completed, the doctor will place a long guidewire in the left ventricle, and then the catheter is inserted into the mitral balloon to expand the catheter into the left atrium. At this point, the surgeon manipulates the catheter and sends it through the mitral valve into the left ventricle. The retractable balloon catheter is inserted just above the narrow mitral valve and inflated the balloon to complete an expansion.


    In the expansion of mitral valve, because the balloon temporarily blocked the mitral valve, some patients will have dizziness, dark and other symptoms. This is temporary and disappears after the balloon is withdrawn. In addition, when the balloon catheter enters the left ventricle, some patients may be disturbed by a sexual arrhythmia. Usually, after each expansion, the doctor will immediately ask you to cough. You should cough four or five times as quickly as your doctor requires.


    When an expansion is completed, the doctor will decide whether to expand further based on the changes in your heart murmur and the pressure changes in the heart. Using Inoue balloon technique, the diameter of the balloon can be increased gradually. The advantage of this technique is that the mitral valve is expanded to the maximum extent with maximum safety. If the doctor thinks the expansion is satisfactory after the examination, the operation is over.


    The next step is to pull out the catheter. When the balloon catheter is pulled out of the body, the doctor may require you to gasp for air to facilitate the removal of the balloon catheter. At this point, you can stop the bleeding and bandage the wound, then return to the ward.


    If the operation is successful, the procedure usually takes about 1 to 1.5 hours.


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What is the ptca balloon catheter made from?